24:1-3 = POxy655 24d
(2) Matt 5:14a
(?3a) DialSav 8 (=14)
(?3b) DialSav 15 (=34)
(4a) John 1:1-5, 9*
(4b) John 8:12
(4c) John 9:4*
(4d) John 11:9-10
(4e) John 12:35-36
* not listed in Crossan's inventory
/1/ His disciples said, "Show us the place where you are, for we must seek it." /2/He said to them, "Anyone here with two ears had better listen! /3/ There is light within a person of light, and it shines on the whole world. If it does not shine, it is dark." [Complete Gospels]
Ch. 24 3 [...] "There [is light within a person] of light, [and it shines on the whole] world. [If it does not shine], it is [dark]." [Complete Gospels]
"You are the light of the world. A city built on a hill cannot be hid."
(?3a) DialSav 8
/1/ M[ar]y said, "Lord, tell me, from where [do I] carry the body [when I] weep, and from where (do I carry it) when I [laugh]?"
/2/ The Lord said, "[...] weep because of its works [...] remain and the mind laughs [...] [...]
spirit. /3/ If you do not [...the] darkness, you will [not] be able to see [the light]. /4/ So then, I tell you [..of the] light is the darkness. /5/ [And if you do not] stand in [the darkness, you will] not [be able] to see the light. /6/ [...] the lie [...] were brought by [...] /7/ You will give [...lig]ht and [...b]e forever. [...] in the [...] one [...] forever. /8/ Then [all] the powers will [...] you, those that are above and those [that] are below, in the place where [there will] be weeping and gnashing of teeth concerning the end of a[ll] these [Complete Gospels]
(?3b) DialSav 15
/1/ Judas responded, "Tell me, Lord, as for the shak[ing] that moves the earth---how does it move?"
/2/ The Lord took a sto[ne and] held it in his hand, [saying, "What] is this that I am holding in my hand?"
/3/ He said, "[It is] a stone."
/4/ He said to them, "That which supports the ear[th] is that which supports the heaven. /5/ When a word comes forth from the Majesty, it will come upon that which supports the heaven and the earth. /6/ For the earth <itself> does not move---if it moved it would fall---but <it does not fall> so that the first word might not be nullified. /7/ For that is the one who established the world and came to be in it and received <sweet> fragrance from it. /8/ For [...] thing that does not move I [...] you, all of humankind, for you are from that place: you are in the heart of those who speak from jo[y] and truth. /9/ Even if it comes forth among humankind from the body of the Father and is not received, it returns again to its place. /10/ The one who knows [..thi]ng<s> of perfection kno[ws] nothing. /11/ If you do not stand in the darkness, you will not be able to see the light." [Complete Gospels]
(4a) John 1:1-5,9
/1/ In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. /2/ He was in the beginning with God. /3/ All things came into being through him, and without him not one thing came into being. What has come into being /4/ in him was life, and the life was the light of all people. /5/ The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not overcome it. ... /9/ The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world.
(4b) John 8:12
Again Jesus spoke to them, saying, "I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness but will have the light of life."
(4c) John 9:4-5
/4/ We must work the works of him who sent me while it is day; night is coming when no one can work. /5/ As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world."
(4d) John 11:9-10
/9/ Jesus answered, "Are there not twelve hours of daylight? Those who walk during the day do not stumble, because they see the light of this world. /10/ But those who walk at night stumble, because the light is not in them."
(4e) John 12:35-36
/35/ Jesus said to them, "The light is with you for a little longer. Walk while you have the light, so that the darkness may not overtake you. If you walk in the darkness, you do not know where you are going. /36/ While you have the light, believe in the light, so that you may become children of light." After Jesus had said this, he departed and hid from them.
John Dominic Crossan
Attestation : Multiple
Stratum : I (30-60 CE)
Historicity : +
Crossan understands the core saying as deriving from Jesus, but addressed in the first instance to his followers as the ones in and through whom the world's light would be made available to others. As such he relates it to several other sayings about the "open secret:"
The complex 36 Lamp and Bushel [1/3] makes the same case but with more limited and less rhapsodic metaphor. The complexes 78 The Mountain City [1/2] and 79 Open Proclamation [1/2] speak the same vision. The missionaries have a message that is neither private nor clandestine, neither hidden nor occult, neither secret nor mysterious. [Historical Jesus, 349]
Luedemann [Jesus, 137] accepts the form of the saying in Matt 5:14a as authentic, but considers the form in which it occurs in John 8:12 "unthinkable in the mouth of the historical Jesus" [p. 485]. While he accepts John 8:12 was taken from the tradition available to the evangelist, Luedemann [p. 495] points to the evangelist's hand in the wider use of this idea in John (1:4-9; 3:19-21; 9:5; 12:35-36). Thom 24:3 is considered inauthentic [p. 602].
The Seminar did not consider each of the texts included in this cluster. Those that were considered were all voted Black without any dissenting votes.
Color Thom 24:3
Black Matt 5:14a
Black John 8:12
Black John 12:35-36
Meier does not address the texts that comprise this cluster in the first three volumes of A Marginal Jew.
Abbreviations | Comment/Discussion | Copyright Information | General Info