working together for the future of faith
(1a) 1Cor 15:4b;
(1b) Rom 1:4
(2) GPet 9:35-10:40
(3) Barn 15:9
(4a) IgnMag 11:1c;
(4b) IgnTrall 9:2a;
(4c) IgnSmyr 1:2b
(a) 1Cor 15:4-8
/4/ and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures, /5/ and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. /6/ Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers and sisters at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have died. /7/ Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. /8/ Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me.
(b) Rom 1:4
/3/ the gospel concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh /4/ and was declared to be Son of God with power according to the spirit of holiness by resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord,
/9.1/ Early, at first light on the sabbath, a crowd came from Jerusalem and the surrounding countryside to see the sealed tomb. /2/ But during the night before the Lord's day dawned, while the soldiers were on guard, two by two during each watch, a loud noise came from the sky, /3/ and they saw the skies open up and two men come down from there in a burst of light and approach the tomb. /4/ The stone that had been pushed against the entrance began to roll by itself and moved away to one side; then the tomb opened up and both young men went inside.
/10.1/ Now when these soldiers saw this, they roused the centurion from his sleep, along with the elders. (Remember, they were also there keeping watch.) /2/ While they were explaining what they had seen, again they see three men leaving the tomb, two supporting the third, and a cross was following them. /3/ The heads of the two reached up to the sky, while the head of the third, whom they led by the hand, reached beyond the skies. /4/ And they heard a voice from the skies that said, "Have you preached to those who sleep?" /5/ And an answer was heard from the cross: "Yes!" [Complete Gospels]
Further, also, it is written concerning the Sabbath in the Decalogue which [the Lord] spoke, face to face, to Moses on Mount Sinai, "And sanctify ye the Sabbath of the Lord with clean hands and a pure heart." And He says in another place, "If my sons keep the Sabbath, then will I cause my mercy to rest upon them." The Sabbath is mentioned at the beginning of the creation [thus]: "And God made in six days the works of His hands, and made an end on the seventh day, and rested on it, and sanctified it." Attend, my children, to the meaning of this expression, "He finished in six days." This implieth that the Lord will finish all things in six thousand years, for a day is with Him a thousand years. And He Himself testifieth, saying, "Behold, to-day will be as a thousand years." Therefore, my children, in six days, that is, in six thousand years, all things will be finished. "And He rested on the seventh day." This meaneth: when His Son, coming [again], shall destroy the time of the wicked man, and judge the ungodly, and change the-sun, and the moon, and the stars, then shall He truly rest on the seventh day. Moreover, He says, "Thou shalt sanctify it with pure hands and a pure heart." If, therefore, any one can now sanctify the day which God hath sanctified, except he is pure in heart in all things, we are deceived. Behold, therefore: certainly then one properly resting sanctifies it, when we ourselves, having received the promise, wickedness no longer existing, and all things having been made new by the Lord, shall be able to work righteousness. Then we shall be able to sanctify it, having been first sanctified ourselves. Further, He says to them, "Your new moons and your Sabbath I cannot endure." Ye perceive how He speaks: Your present Sabbaths are not acceptable to Me, but that is which I have made, [namely this,] when, giving rest to all things, I shall make a beginning of the eighth day, that is, a beginning of another world. Wherefore, also, we keep the eighth day with joyfulness, the day also on which Jesus rose again from the dead. And when He had manifested Himself, He ascended into the heavens. [ANF]
(4a) IgnMag 11:1c
These things [I address to you], my beloved, not that I know any of you to be in such a state; but, as less than any of you, I desire to guard you beforehand, that ye fall not upon the hooks of vain doctrine, but that ye attain to full assurance in regard to the birth, and passion, and resurrection which took place in the time of the government of Pontius Pilate, being truly and certainly accomplished by Jesus Christ, who is our hope, from which may no one of you ever be turned aside. [ANF]
(4b) IgnTrall 9:2a
Stop your ears, therefore, when any one speaks to you at variance with Jesus Christ, who was descended from David, and was also of Mary; who was truly born, and did eat and drink. He was truly persecuted under Pontius Pilate; He was truly crucified, and [truly] died, in the sight of beings in heaven, and on earth, and under the earth. He was also truly raised from the dead, His Father quickening Him, even as after the same manner His Father will so raise up us who believe in Him by Christ Jesus, apart from whom we do not possess the true life. [ANF]
(4c) IgnSmyr 1:2b
I glorify God, even Jesus Christ, who has given you such wisdom. For I have observed that ye are perfected in an immoveable faith, as if ye were nailed to the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, both in the flesh and in the spirit, and are established in love through the blood of Christ, being fully persuaded with respect to our Lord, that He was truly of the seed of David according to the flesh, and the Son of God according to the will and power of God; that He was truly born of a virgin, was baptized by John, in order that all righteousness might be fulfilled by Him; and was truly, under Pontius Pilate and Herod the tetrarch, nailed [to the cross] for us in His flesh. Of this fruit we are by His divinely-blessed passion, that He might set up a standard s for all ages, through His resurrection, to all His holy and faithful [followers], whether among Jews or Gentiles, in the one body of His Church. [ANF]
John Dominic Crossan
Stratum: I (30-60 CE)
Crossan deals with the key passage in GPet 9:35-10:42 when discussing the death and burial of Jesus [Historical Jesus, 385-87]. As argued in The Cross That Spoke: The Origins of the Passion Narrative (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988. Pages 297-334), Crossan holds that the "submodel" of innocence rescued -- one of two forms of Hellenistic Jewish narrative about the suffering of the innocent one -- was used to organise the disparate prophetic texts into a full passion narrative. He sees the Cross Gospel embedded within the Gospel of Peter as the earliest passion narrative and the ultimate source of the later Synoptic and Johannine accounts:
I propose a single stream of tradition for the passion-resurrection traditions from the Cross Gospel into Mark, from both of them into both Matthew and Luke, and from all of them into John. But although, in general, all later versions accepted the Cross Gospel's passion sequence, none of them was willing to accept its resurrection account. Mark would not do so because his theology was based on a dyad of passion and parousia. The resurrection was simply the departure of Jesus pending a now imminent return in glory. [Historical Jesus, 396]
Crossan suggests that Mark reshaped the resurrection narrative from GPet in the Transfiguration event and relocated it to an earlier point in Jesus' ministry where it pointed not to his resurrection but his parousia (see Mark 9:1,9-10). While Matthew, Luke and John do have traditions of Jesus' appearances, they involve epiphanies to the apostolic leaders rather than a risen Jesus leading the righteous dead into heaven.
The March 1995 meeting of the Seminar considered the Resurrection traditions. Extensive information on the voting results, which were expressed partly as assessments of the texts and partly as statements about the literary, historical and theological, has been published in Forum 10,3-4. A selection of the results will be listed here.
Color The resurrection of Jesus from the dead was the central claim of the church's proclamation. There was no period when this was not so.
Pink Jesus' followers did not know what happened to Jesus' corpse.
Pink The Cross Gospel embedded in the Gosple of Peter is the original passion narrative, on which the canonical gospels are dependent.
Black The Gospel of Peter independently developed earlier exegetical traditions already in use in early Christian communities; it is not derived from the New Testament gospels.
Gray The formation of the appearance traditions mentioned in 1 Cor 15:3-8 falls into the time between 30 and 33 CE.