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The JESUS DATABASE is an online annotated inventory of the traditions concerning the life and teachings of Jesus that have survived from the first three centuries of the Common Era. It includes both canonical and extra-canonical materials, and is not limited to the traditions found within the Christian New Testament.

The goal is to provide a collection of Jesus materials that will be of interest to scholars, to educators, to students, to clergy, to church members, and to the wider public.


The Jesus Database has moved to a new site using the wiki software that drives the Wikipedia project. For the latest pages in the current version of the Jesus Database project please visit

While the project is being developed in its new wiki format, the following list will provide access to earlier pages from the older version of the project.

What to expect on these pages


General Information:
Common Sayings Tradition
Historical Evalution
HODOS community
Jesus Seminar and NT scholarship
Jesus Seminar Meetings
Jesus Seminar Voting
Rabbinic texts as historical sources

Strata proposed by Crossan:
I (30-60 CE)
II (60-80 CE)
III (80-120 CE)
IV (120-150 CE)

Index to Passion Narrative
Index to Easter Traditions


Crossan Historical Jesus Inventory:
1. Jesus tradition, chronological stratification
2. Jesus tradition, independent attestation
3. Common Sayings Tradition in the Gospel of Thomas and the Q Gospel

Special Luke: Items not found in any other text

NB: If your software prompts you for a password to access these files, simply hit the return key to proceed. Please contact us if you have any other difficulties in downloading these files.

Poetic Explorations of the Wisdom and Wit of Jesus
Poems by Gene Stecher


Liturgical Resources

Index to Sunday Lectionaries

ADVANCEWORD weekly lectionary notes

FIRST STRATUM [30-60 CE] >>TOP of page

Multiple Independent Attestation
1. Mission and Message
2. Jesus' Apocalyptic Return
3. Bread and Fish
4. Ask, Seek, Knock
5. Crucifixion of Jesus
6. Revealed to Peter
7. Of David's Lineage
8. When and Where
9. Who Has Ears
10. Receiving the Sender
11. Climax of Sins
12. Knowing the Danger
13. Two As One
14. Eye, Ear, Mind
15. Against Divorce
16. Supper and Eucharist
17. Resurrection of Jesus
18. Revealed to Disciples
19. What Goes In
20. Kingdom and Children
21. The World's Light
22. Prophet's Own Country
23. All Sins Forgiven
24. Blessed the Womb
25. Peter's Betrayal Foretold
26. Jesus Virginally Conceived

27. Forgiveness for Forgiveness
28. Before the Angels
29. Descent into Hell

Triple Independent Attestation
30. Revealed to James
31. First and Last
32. Hidden Made Manifest
33. The Golden Rule
34. The Sower
35. The Mustard Seed
36. Lamp and Bushel
37. New Garments
38. Serpents and Doves
39. Plant Rooted Up
40. Have and Receive
41. Trees and Hearts
42. Scriptures and Jesus
43. Blessed the Poor
44. Carrying One's Cross
45. Father and Son
46. The Tenants
47. The Rejected Stone
48. Blessed the Persecuted
49. Temple and Jesus
50. Harvest is Great
51. Into the Desert
52. Yoke and Burden
53. Knowing the Times
54. Dogs and Swine
55. Emperor and God
56. Lips Without Hearts
57. For and Against
58. John Baptizes Jesus
59. Blessed the Sad
60. Measure for Measure
61. Disciple and Servant
62. Spirit Under Trial
63. Saving One's Life
64. The Last Days
65. Pilate and Antipas

Double Independent Attestation
66. Wise and Understanding
67. Hidden since Eternity
68. Hidden from Demons
69. Faith and Mountain
70. Burial of Jesus
71. The Fishnet
72. Fire on Earth
73. Who Is Jesus?
74. Peace or Sword
75.The Harvest Time
76. Speck and Log
77. Two or Three
78. The Mountain City
79. Open Proclamation
80. The Blind Guide
81. Strong One's House
82. Against Anxieties
83. Seeking Too Late
84. On Hindering Others
85. Greater than John
86. Serving Two Masters
87. Drinking Old Wine
88. Patches and Wineskins
89. Hating One's Family
90. The Planted Weeds
91. Taken or Left
92. Knowing the Mystery
93. On Secrecy
94. The Rich Farmer
95. The Feast
96. Blessed the Hungry
97. The Disputed Inheritance
98. The Pearl
99. Treasure in Heaven
100. Jerusalem Mourned
101. Foxes Have Holes
102. Inside and Outside
103. Give without Return
104. The Leaven
105. Jesus' True Family
106. Fasting and Wedding
107. The Lost Sheep
108. The Treasure
109. Hour Not Come
110. A Leper Cured
111. Invocation without Obedience
112. Jesus' New Teaching
113. Eating with Sinners
114. Love Your Enemies
115. John's Message
116. Jesus Tempted
117. Better than Sinners
118. Judgment for Judgment
119. Distant Boy Cured
120. The Lord's Prayer
121. Beelzebul Controversy
122. Request for Sign
123. The Body's Light
124. Honors and Salutations
125 Gnashing of Teeth
126. Salting the Salt
127. Sickness and Sin
128. Walking on Water
129. Blind Man Healed
130. Dead Man Raised
131. Mocking of Jesus

Single Attestation
132. A Sowing Miracle
133. Vision of Jesus
134. Spirit as Mother
135. Joy in Love
136. Grieving Another
137. John's Warning
138. Tree Cut Down
139. Jesus Tempted Thrice
140. The Other Cheek
141. As Your Father
142. Rock or Sand
143. Reply to John
144. Wisdom Justified
145. Leave the Dead
146. Looking Backward
147. Lambs Among Wolves
148. Cities of Woe
149. Good Gifts
150. By Whose Power
151. The Returning Demon
152. Judgment by Pagans
153. Tithing and Justice
154. Like Graves
155. Helping with Burdens
156. The Prophets' Tombs
157. Wisdom's Envoys
158. Whom to Fear
159. God and Sparrows
160. Heart and Treasure
161. Master and Steward
162. Before the Judgment
163. The Narrow Door
164. The Closed Door
165. Depart from Me
166. Patriarchs and Gentiles
167. Jerusalem Indicted
168. Kingdom and Violence
169. Not One Iota
170. Woe for Temptation
171. Reproving and Forgiving
172. Unlimited Forgiveness
173. Faith's Power
174. As with Lightning
175. As with Noah
176. As with Lot
177. Corpse and Vultures
178. The Entrusted Money
179. On Twelve Thrones
180. Pilate's Questions
181. The People Repent
182. Jesus' Tomb Guarded
183. Crowds Visit Tomb
184. Transfiguration of Jesus
185. The Guards' Report
186. Apostolic Grief

SECOND STRATUM [60-80 CE] >>TOP of page

Multiple Independent Attestation
187. Righteous and Sinners
188. The Unknown Time
189. Better Not Born

Triple Independent Attestation
190. Fishing for Humans
191. Leader as Servant
192. Woman with Ointment
193. Pharisees as Blind
194. Flesh and Spirit.

Double Independent Attestation
195. Woman and Birth
196. From the Boat
197. Herod beheads John
198. Millstone for Temptation
199. Kingdom and Riches
200. Hundredfold Reward
201. The Chief Commandment
202. Son of David
203. Prayer against Temptation
204. Living Water
205. Not Taste Death
206. Knowing Oneself
207. Buried and Resurrected
208. Life and Death
209. The Bridal Chamber
210. Place of Life
211. The Day's Evil
212. Blessed for Doing

Single Attestation
213. John the Baptist
214. Kingdom and Repentance
215. In Capernaum's Synagogue
216. Simon's Mother-in-Law
217. Healings and Exorcisms
218. To Other Places
219. Grain and Sabbath
220. Lord and Sabbath
221. Hand and Sabbath
222. Crowds are Cured
223. Demons are Silenced
224. Twelve Disciples Chosen
225. Interpreting the Sower
226. Hear and Heed
227. Speaking in Parables
228. The Gerasene Demoniac
229. Two Women Cured
230. Among the Villages
231. Herod on Jesus
232. The Disciples Return
233. Healings at Gennesaret
234. Unwashed Hands
235. Commandment and Tradition
236. What Comes Out
237. Distant Girl Cured
238. Deaf Mute Cured
239. Leaven of Pharisees
240. Passion-Resurrection Prophecy
241. What Profit?
242. Life's Price
243. Some Standing Here
244. Elijah Has Come
245. Possessed Boy Cured
246. Stranger as Exorcist
247. Cup of Water
248. Hand, Foot, Eye
249. Salted with Fire
250. Salt and Peace
251. Jesus to Judea
252. Moses and Divorce
253. The Rich Man
254. Jesus' Baptisms
255. Raised Man's Family
256. Healing of Bartimaeus
257. Entry into Jerusalem
258. Entry into Temple
259. Bethany at Night
260. Cursed Fig Tree
261. By What Authority?
262. On the Resurrection
263. Widows' Houses
264. Widow's Mite
265. Within this Generation
266. Plot against Jesus
267. Judas Promised Money
268. The Passover Preparation
269. Jesus Arrested
270. Priest's Question
271. Peter's Three Denials
272. Release of Barabbas
273. Simon of Cyrene
274. Women at Crucifixion
275. The Empty Tomb
276. The Great Torment
277 Purification by Water?
278. Man and Child
279. In Your Sight
280. On Telling Lies
281. Man and Lion
282. Two and One
283. Fasting, Praying, Almsgiving
284. Your Father
285. Beginning and End
286. Before One's Creation
287. Stones and Trees
288. Children in Field

Single Attestation (cont'd)
289. The Chosen Few
290. Love Your Brother
291. Fasting and Sabbath
292. Drunk, Blind, Empty
293. Flesh as Poverty
294. Desire to Hear
295. Become Passers-By
296. From My Words
297. Horses and Bows
298. Unity and Mountain
299. Solitary and Elect
300. If They Ask
301. The True Circumcision
302. Superior to World
303. Blessed the Sufferer
304. Take Heed Now
305. Samaritan and Lamb
306. Jesus and Salome
307. Knowing the All
308. From Within Yourselves
309. The Cistern
310. Light and All
311. Stone and Wood
312. Riches and Power
313. Near the Fire
314. The Father's Light
315. The Primordial Images
316. Adam's Death
317. Body and Soul
318. Angels and Prophets
319. Then and Now
320. The Empty Jar
321. The Assassin
322. A Harlot's Son
323. From My Mouth
324. Finding the World
325. Finding Oneself
326. Flesh and Soul
327. Peter and Mary
328. Wise and Righteous
329. Renouncing Power
330. This Impoverished Cosmos
331. Stone and Word
332. Vision of God
333. The True Rule
334. Fullness and Deficiency
335. Living and Dead
336. Place of Absence
337. Love and Goodness
338. Treasures of Cosmos
339. The Perfect Victory
340. Love and Goodness
341. Faith and Knowledge
342. Reaching the Place
343. Understanding Everything
344. Your Father
345. Left Over
346. The Dissolved Works
347. Spirit and Light
348. Understanding the Works
349. Water into Wine
350. Jesus to Nicodemus
351. The Samaritan Woman
352. On the Father
353. Bread of Life
354. Division over Jesus
355. Jesus at Tabernacles
356. Blindness and Sight
357. Life for Others
358. Feast of Dedication
359. Pagans Visit Jesus
360. Belief in Jesus
361. Hour of Glory
362. Prophecies of Disbelief
363. Jesus' Supper Discourse
364. These are Written

THIRD STRATUM [80-120 CE] >>TOP of page

Multiple Independent Attestation
365. Giving and Receiving

Triple Independent Attestation
366. Blessed the Meek

Double Independent Attestation
367. Birth of Jesus
368. Genealogy of Jesus
369. Star of Revelation
370. Mercy for Mercy
371. Prayer and Forgiveness
372. Against Oaths
373. On Prayer
374. On Fasting
375. Binding and Loosing
376. Power of Prayer
377. Able to Receive
378. Called and Chosen
379. Exaltation and Humiliation
380. Suicide of Judas
381. Teach and Baptize
382. Gift for Gift
383. The Servant's Duty
384. Hate Hypocrisy
385. Faith's Final Profit
386. Faith against Sight
387. Place from Which

Single Attestation
388. Sermon on Mount
389. Blessed the Pure
390. Blessed the Peacemakers
391. Your Good Works
392. Not To Abolish
393. The Least Commandment
394. Greater Righteousness
395. Against Anger
396. Against Lust
397. Piety before Men
398. On Almsgiving
399. Gentiles and Prayer
400. Tomorrow's Anxiety
401. In Sheep's Clothing
402. Mercy Not Sacrifice
403. Israel's Lost Sheep
404. Give Without Pay
405. Cities of Israel
406. Master and Household
407. Reception and Reward
408. Teaching and Preaching
409. My Chosen Servant
410. By Your Words
411. Planted Weeds Explained
412. The Fishnet Explained
413. Peter Sinks
414. At His Feet
415. The Humble Child
416. Despising Little Ones
417. Church Excommunication
418. The Unmerciful Servant
419. The Vineyard Laborers
420. On Moses' Seat
421. On Titles
422. For a Proselyte
423. Against Casuistry
424. Gnat and Camel
425. The Last Judgment
426. The Kingdom's Scribe
427. Kingdom and Eunuch
428. The Two Sons
429. The Temple Tax
430. The Children's Confession
431. Conception of John
432. Birth of John
433. Jesus at Twelve
434. John's Ethic
435. Gentiles Preferred
436. On Sabbath Labor
437. Woe against Riches
438. Woe against Satiety

Single Attestation (cont'd)
439. Woe against Laughter
440. Woe against Praise
441. Condemnation for Condemnation
442. Widow's Son Raised
443. Having Rejected John
444. Women with Jesus
445. Inhospitable Samaritans
446. The Seventy Return
447. The Good Samaritan
448. Martha and Mary
449. Friend at Midnight
450. Adversaries Watch Jesus
451. Little Flock
452. Much and More
453. Repent or Perish
454. The Barren Tree
455. Cripple and Sabbath
456. Going to Jerusalem
457. Jesus and Herod
458. Dropsy and Sabbath
459. Place at Table
460. Inviting the Outcasts
461. The Tower Builder
462. The Warring King
463. Renouncing All
464. The Lost Coin
465. The Prodigal Son
466. The Unjust Steward
467. This World's Sons
468. Unrighteous Mammon
469. Faithful and Unfaithful
470. Exaltation and Abomination
471. Rich Man and Lazarus
472. Days Are Coming
473. The Unjust Judge
474. Pharisee and Publican
475. Salvation for Zaccheus
476. The Disciples' Confession
477. Jerusalem Destroyed
478. Two Swords Enough
479. The Promised Spirit
480. Ascension of Jesus
481. Action for Action
482. Kindness for Kindness
483. Only through Suffering
484. Gatherings in Preparation
485. Disciples find Jesus
486. Jesus and Nathanael
487. Jesus Baptizing

FOURTH STRATUM [120-150 CE] >>TOP of page

Single Attestation
488. In the Beginning
489. Matthias Replaces Judas
490. The Heavens Opened
491. Kingdom and Fullness
492. Become Full
493. Kingdom and Cross
494. Head of Prophecy
495. Secretly and Openly
496. Go Before Me
497. The Palm Shoot
498. Ascension and Parables
499. Grain of Wheat

Single Attestation (cont'd)
500. Son Needs Father
501. On Persecuting Oneself
502. It Is Easier
503. Grief and Sorrow
504. Had It Been
505. Jesus as Intercessor
506. Intercessor Not Needed
507. Be Like Strangers
508. Soul and Flesh
509. Few in Heaven
510. Ear of Grain
511. House for Shelter

Single Attestation (cont'd)
512. To the Father
513. Who Are Not
514. Kingdom Becomes Desert
515. Being Like Jesus
516. Kingdom and Life
517. Thrice Blessed Ones
518. Small and Great
519. Chosen and Given
520. Wrath for Sacrifice
521. Adulterous Woman Forgiven
522. Later Markan Endings


The following outline of the rationale behind the collection may be of interest.

Anyone wishing to collect and study the ancient traditions about Jesus soon has to choose between various strategies. Is it best to consider sayings separately from the acts of Jesus? How best to handle the multiple variants in which some items occur? Can we avoid excessive fragmentation of the materials into almost 2,000 items, or even more if the Johannine discourses are divided into individual sayings?

The collection is being constructed around the clusters of Jesus material first identified by John Dominic Crossan in his Sayings Parallels: A Workbook for the Jesus Tradition (Fortress Press, 1986). That collection of 522 items served as a basic tool for the ground-breaking work of the Jesus Seminar, and also underlay Crossan's own major works: The Historical Jesus (HarperSanFrancisco, 1991) and The Birth of Christianity (HarperSan Francisco, 1998). A complete list of the items included in Crossan's inventory is also available on this site.

While Crossan's inventory provides the rationale for the selection and arrangement of the traditional materials in this database, the project seeks to take account of other voices from the field of historical Jesus studies. The information gathered here reports the voting decisions of the Jesus Seminar, for which Crossan was co-chair throughout its most productive period, where those decisions relate to any of the items within each cluster. In addition, where other major Jesus scholars have published an opinion on the historicity of specific traditions, these are being noted within the collection.

This collection began as a personal research project by Dr Gregory Jenks, a Fellow of the Jesus Seminar and formerly Associate Director of the Westar Institute. Its initial purpose was to identify points of convergence and difference between leading Jesus scholars as part of the preparation for a book on the implications of historical Jesus research for contemporary Christian faith communities.

The project developed a wider scope when the growing collection of materials was adopted by the Hodos community—an online community of practice with a focus on developing personal spiritual journeys informed by the wisdom and the practice of the historical Jesus—as a resource for its weekly cycle of discussion and reflection.

It was soon recognized that the Crossan clusters could provide the basis for an online collection of secondary materials (educational resources, liturgies, sermons, etc) of interest to a diverse audience. Subsequently the JESUS DATABASE became a core element of the FaithFutures Foundation with its focus on resources for faith communities concerned to refashion their religious traditions in the light of current scholarship.

A team of people is forming to work on this project. With technical assistance from Don Spencer, and assistance from Barbara Barry in editing the HTML files, the collection has begun to take shape.

The priorities by which we are proceeding are as follows:

>>TOP of page

If you would like to contribute to the development of the JESUS DATABASE, we would welcome your help. The following are some of the ways in which you may wish to contribute:

If you are interested in helping in any way with this project, we would like to hear from you.

As always, we also welcome contributions of educational resources, liturgical materials and sermons that may be of wider interest. Please refer to the guidelines for authors for additional information.

Most importantly, we hope that you find the materials collected here of interest.


Thank you for your interest and support.

Gregory C. Jenks

on behalf of the JESUS DATABASE team

>>TOP of page

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