working together for the future of faith
(1) 1Cor 15:5b,7b
(2) Matt 28:16-20
(3a) Luke 24:36-39
(3b) John 20:19-21
(4) IgnSmyr 3.2b-3
/4/ and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures, /5/ and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. /6/ Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers and sisters at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have died. /7/ Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. /8/ Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me.
/16/ Now the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain to which Jesus had directed them. /17/ When they saw him, they worshiped him; but some doubted. /18/ And Jesus came and said to them, "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. /19/ Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, /20/ and teaching them to obey everything that I have commanded you. And remember, I am with you always, to the end of the age."
(a) Luke 24:36-40
/36/ While they were talking about this, Jesus himself stood among them and said to them, "Peace be with you." /37/ They were startled and terrified, and thought that they were seeing a ghost. /38/ He said to them, "Why are you frightened, and why do doubts arise in your hearts? /39/ Look at my hands and my feet; see that it is I myself. Touch me and see; for a ghost does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have." /40/ And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.
(b) John 20:19-21
/19/ When it was evening on that day, the first day of the week, and the doors of the house where the disciples had met were locked for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood among them and said, "Peace be with you." /20/ After he said this, he showed them his hands and his side. Then the disciples rejoiced when they saw the Lord. /21/ Jesus said to them again, "Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, so I send you."
For I know that after His resurrection also He was still possessed of flesh, and I believe that He is so now. When, for instance, He came to those who were with Peter, He said to them, "Lay hold, handle Me, and see that I am not an incorporeal spirit." And immediately they touched Him, and believed, being convinced both by His flesh and spirit. For this cause also they despised death, and were found its conquerors. And after his resurrection He did eat and drink with them, as being possessed of flesh, although spiritually He was united to the Father. And I know that He was possessed of a body not only in His being born and crucified, but I also know that He was so after His resurrection, and believe that He is so now. When, for instance, He came to those who were with Peter, He said to them, "Lay hold, handle Me, and see that I am not an incorporeal spirit." "For a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see Me have." And He says to Thomas, "Reach hither thy finger into the print of the nails, and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into My side;" and immediately they believed that He was Christ. Wherefore Thomas also says to Him, "My Lord, and my God." And on this account also did they despise death, for it were too little to say, indignities and stripes. Nor was this all; but also after He had shown Himself to them, that He had risen indeed, and not in appearance only, He both ate and drank with them during forty entire days. And thus was He, with the flesh, received up in their sight unto Him that sent Him, being with that same flesh to come again, accompanied by glory and power. For, say the [holy] oracles, "This same Jesus, who is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come, in like manner as ye have seen Him go unto heaven." But if they say that He will come at the end of the world without a body, how shall those "see Him that pierced Him," and when they recognize Him, "mourn for themselves?" For incorporeal beings have neither form nor figure, nor the aspect of an animal possessed of shape, because their nature is in itself simple. [ANF]
John Dominic Crossan
Stratum: I (30-60 CE)
The March 1995 meeting of the Seminar considered the Resurrection traditions. Extensive information on the voting results, which were expressed partly as assessments of the texts and partly as statements about the literary, historical and theological, has been published in Forum 10,3-4. A selection of the results will be listed here.
Color James (the apostle) had at least one visionary religious experience, which he came to regard as an appearance of the risen Jesus.
Gray John (the apostle) had at least one visionary religious experience, which he came to regard as an appearance of the risen Jesus.
Gray A group known as "the Twelve" had at least one visionary religious experience, which it came to regard as an appearance of the risen Jesus.
Gray A group known as "the apostles" had at least one visionary religious experience, which it came to regard as an appearance of the risen Jesus.
Black The formation of the appearance traditions mentioned in 1 Cor 15:3-8 falls into the time between 30 and 33 CE.
Pink The Gospel of Peter independently developed earlier exegetical traditions already in use in early Christian communities; it is not derived from the New Testament gospels.
Gray Matt 28:16-20
Black Luke 24:33b-49
Black John 20:19-23
Black With respect to content, the appearance stories in the gospels appear to be connected with (a) the commission to preach the gospel, (b) the authorization to found a community of believers, (c) the legitimization of leaders, and (d) the plan of salvation history.
Red Accounts of the appearances (of the risen Jesus) in the gospels are secondary kerygmatic narrative expressions of resurrection faith made by relatively late communities.
Matt 28:16-20 The description of Jesus's appearance is minimal, as attention is focused on the content of Jesus' message to the Eleven. Luedemann notes that "the historical yield is extremely meager." He accepts the early tradition that various disciples had visionary experiences, most probably located in Galilee, and that these experiences led to the founding of "a community which preached the resurrection and exaltation of Jesus as the Messiah and/or the Son of Man among their Jewish contemporaries." [Jesus, 255f.]
Luke 24:36-53 The emphatic realism in the recognition scene that begins this appearance story mans "one can hardly avoid seeing this as a thrust against docetism. Evidently in this verse Luke is combating the same challenges to the bodily reality of Jesus as Ignatius, To the Smyrneans 3.2, does at the beginning of the second century." Luedemann concludes, "The historical yield is nil, both in respect of the real historical event and in connection with the visions which were the catalyst for the rise of Christianity." [Jesus, 413-415]