working together for the future of faith
1Q: Luke 6:40 = Matt 10:24-25
(2) DialSav 20:1 [=53:3]
(3a) John 13:16
(3b) John 15:20
(1) 1Q: Luke 6:40 = Matt 10:24-25
/6:40/ A disciple is not above the teacher, but everyone who is fully qualified will be like the teacher.
= Matt 10:24-25
/10:24/ "A disciple is not above the teacher, nor a slave above the master; /25/ it is enough for the disciple to be like the teacher, and the slave like the master. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul, how much more will they malign those of his household!
(2) DialSav 20:1
/20:1/ Mary said, "Just so: 'The wickedness of each day <is sufficient>,' and 'Laborers are worthy of their food,' and 'Disciples resemble their teachers.'" /2/ She spoke this word as a woman who fully understood. [Complete Gospels]
(3a) John 13:16
/13:16/ Very truly, I tell you, servants are not greater than their master, nor are messengers greater than the one who sent them.
(3b) John 15:20
/15:20/ Remember the word that I said to you, 'Servants are not greater than their master.' If they persecuted me, they will persecute you; if they kept my word, they will keep yours also.
John Dominic Crossan
Stratum: I (30-60 CE)
Crossan [Historical Jesus, 348] discusses saying in the context of itinerancy in primitive Christianity, and especially sayings such as 10. Receiving the Sender. He suggests that this saying:
probably comes from a later stage of the tradition when disciples needed to be told not that they were equal to Jesus before God but that they were not above Jesus and should handle their status as he had done before them.
The International Q Project reconstructs the original Q saying as follows:
A disciple is not superior to one's teacher.
[It is enough for the disciple that he become] like his teacher.
Color Disciple and Servant Luke 6:40 258 Q, J, DS 89Tor 0 4 46 50 0.18 Black Matt 10:24-25a 258 Q, J, DS 89Tor 0 0 45 55 0.15 Black DialSav 53:3 258 Q, J, DS 89Tor 0 0 24 76 0.08 Black DialSav 53:3 258 Q, J, DS 91Son 0 0 0 100 0.00 Black John 13:16 258 Q, J, DS 89Tor 0 4 25 71 0.11 Black John 15:20a 258 Q, J, DS 89Tor 0 7 32 61 0.15 Black Disciple and Teacher Luke 6:40 279 Q, J 89Tor 4 0 35 62 0.15 Black Matt 10:24-25a 279 Q, J 89Tor 0 4 27 69 0.12 Black DialSav 53:3 279 Q, J 89Tor 0 0 32 68 0.11 Black John 13:16 279 Q, J 89Tor 0 0 31 69 0.10 Black John 15:20a 279 Q, J 89Tor 0 8 27 65 0.14 Black
It is not clear how these items can be voted on twice at the same meeting (Toronto, 1989) or a third time (Sonoma, 1991) in the case of DialSav 53:3. The variation in voting patterns on the same item at the same meeting is particularly problematic. It may be that different people were present in the room when the votes were taken.
The commentary in The Five Gospels (p. 298) notes that this saying appears to endorse the traditional (and privileged) status of teachers within the faith community, and is therefore contrary to the satire that Jesus elsewhere directs against those same privileges: 124. Honors and Salutations.
It also dismisses this saying as deriving from the "fund of common lore," and lacking all the earmarks of Jesus' remembered speech.
Samuel T. Lachs
Lachs [Rabbinic Commentary on the New Testament, 184] notes the following rabbinic parallel:
It is sufficient for the servant to be like his master. [Gen. R. 49:2]
Luedemann [Jesus, 300] comments as follows:
Verse 39a is a Lukan introductory formula (cf. 5.36). Luke probably wants v. 39b to be understood in parallel to vv. 17f.: how can you set yourself up as a judge if you yourself are blind? Alongside it Luke puts the saying about the pupil and the master (v. 40), deleting half of the parallelism which does not fit the context, namely 'nor a servant above his master' (cf. Matt. 10.24b). That would seem to make a clear statement that there is only one judicial authority, namely Jesus. But in that case the extra redactional v. 40b would still remain unclear. Therefore it seems more likely that at the redactional level vv. 39-40 are addressed to disciples who exalt themselves to be community leaders. Luke accuses them of blindness. It is true of the community leader, too, that he has (only) to be like the teacher. Luke uses this insight in Acts for his depiction of Peter, Stephen and Paul, all of whom he partly portrays like Jesus ...
Meier [Marginal Jew III,45] notes that this saying is one of just two Q passages that refer to disciples (the other being a reference to disciples of John the Baptist in Luke 7:18-19 || Matt 11:2). Meier understands this as perhaps a proverb that Jesus has used in reference to his own disciples.